Selasa, 03 April 2012

Dynastic kingship

Altar Q (Copan)   
Shows the passing down of kingship, the symbols for king –MAYA
Aztec tribute system    They would go to oteher places and the other groups would be made to donate tribute items in food clothes and sacrifice, but they could keep their religion.. AZTEC
Ballcourts/ ballgame   
Buried mosaics/ offerings (olmec)    •    La Venta – Archectural & Ritual
–    Buildings covered in red clay
–    Adobe blocks
–    White sand floors
Calpolli- capulli    Land holding group, clans of people / would uphold eachothers
Cacao    •    Honduras
–    Puerto Escondito
•    Domestication of cacao, traded all over the place
Cenote    deep sinkhole in Limestone; pool at the Bottom; Yucatán= Used for ritual purposes and for obtaining water
Ceiba tree    Branches into the heavens middle into the natural world and top in the heavens
Colossal basalt heads (olmec)    Individual leaders of people
Chinampas    Man made islands that Aztecs built in the lake.. very fertile and grew crops on them
Domestication / domesticates    –    Squash 8000 BC
–    Maize (corn) 3400 BC


Dynastic kingship   

    Roots in the Late Formative
•    San Bartolo Murals
–    Power & authority focused on
    single individual (king)
–    Reinforced through monuments, temples, texts, images
Politico-religious rationale
–    Based in lineage/descent from a Founder
–    Patrilineal, primogeniture
–    EXCEPTIONS
–    Palenque (Lady Zac Kuk); Naranjo (Lady Six Sky)

Ethnographic analogy    Comparing modern day people to ancient people used to interpret archaeological remains
E groups – uaxactun    the 4  astronomuical plats with one looking over each other used to monitor the star
Pyramid of the sun –teotihuacan    Teotihuacan opposite pyramid of the moon on the street of the dead,
Human sacrifice    Tonali gave them his life for the humans so the humans should give their life for them
Huitzilopochtli    The god of war, patron god of the Aztecs
Jade    Is from mountains of Guatemala trade through Honduras
Lifecycle theory    The ancestors can come back and affect your life
Gender as socially constructed    deep history culture, there are so many different aspects
Maize    Main domesticxate and ritual important people coming from the corn
Maya hieroglyphs    texts provide record of military alliances, victories, and defeats
•    history
–    individual kings
–    alliances & war
–    religion
–    views of time
•    First deciphered in 1950’s
–    Yuri Knorozov suggested glyphs were phonetic (1958)
–    Glyphs are composed of consonant-vowel combinations

•    Read top to bottom, left to right by pairs:
•    Hieroglyphs: elite focused
Maya calendar    Called the long count 365 day year, 18 months, months were 20 days long and there were five extra days
Quetzalcoatl    Did not like sacrifice, everyone worshiped him, Aztec named him this
Radiocarbon dating    C14 measures the amunt of radio carbon
Shell    Came from gulf coast and yucutan, ritual importance
San bartolo murals    Showed MAYA, the creation of humand and the coronation of the king, earliest depiction of kings
Caves    Entrances to the underworld…
Tzompantli    The skull racks, Aztec and maya, some are real skull and some are carved.. trophy rack to show evidence of warfare
Tonali    Life force, what Aztecs get from sacrifice
Tlaloc    Rain god, very very important everyone worshiped him
Tripod vessels    Little bowls with three feet, teotihuacan most likely traded with them
Templo mayor    Big temple at the Aztec city, with two temples on top, where big sacrifice was
Tlatoani     The Aztec king
The long count    The maya calendar
Talud tablero architecture    Teotihuacan stair architecture
4 cornered world    All believed in this north south east and west and that it is flat all meso believd
4 tiered hierarchy of maya city states    Kings, elites, commorners
Great pyramid-olmec    –    Over 30m high, nearly 100,000 cubic meters of earth
At la venta, important that it had to be organized by a leader to show social hierarchy
Pipiltin    Nobleman of Aztecs
Pantheism    Belief in many gods and everyone believed in pantheism
Obsidian    Everyone usd it.. volcanic glass
Feminist critiques of science    Not objective and arch should be more inclusive to women bc things can be viewed very differently from the still silent point of view
Mountains    Bring you closer the gods
Multi layered universe    There is and underworld human world and an heaven and the whole world is resting on a crocodile
Machehualli    The Aztec commoners class
Maya mathematics    Base 20 the concept of zero …a line equal 5 and a dot equals 1
Maya warfare –evidence    Victims, textual accounts, weapons
Stela    Big giant status made of the kings .. put out in the public liegitimized the kings as rulers
Spearthrower owl    King of tikal.. supposed to be descendant of teotihuacanos… but they never legitimized it
King yax nuun ayiin I    The founding king of tikal that took leadership from spearthrower owl
K’inich yax k’uk mo’   
Sijak k’ak
   
MAYA- tikal, copan, Palenque, chiten itza, kirigua, cala mul
AZTEC-

Lady zak kuk- the mother of king pical … mayan when her son was too young to rile
King pical- buried under the big pyramid in Palenque
Tikal    Maya.. located in guatamala rainforest
Copan    Maya.. on Honduras
Quirigua    Maya …Next to copan
Calakmul    Maya
Palenque    Maya
San bartolo    Maya
San Lorenzo    Olmec
La venta    Olmec
El manati    Olmec
-1600 bc- 1200 bc
Monte alban    Zapotec
San jose mogote    Zapotec
Teotihuacan    Aztec
Chichen itza    Maya
Aztlan    Where Aztecs belive their mythical homeland is
  
Preclassic (Formative)
BCE 2000–250 CE    Unknown culture in La Blanca and Ujuxte, Monte Alto culture

Early Preclassic    BCE 2000–1000    Olmec area: San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan; Central Mexico: Chalcatzingo; Valley of Oaxaca: San José Mogote. The Maya area: Nakbe, Cerros

Middle Preclassic    BCE 1000–400    Olmec area: La Venta, Tres Zapotes; Maya area: El Mirador, Izapa, Lamanai, Xunantunich, Naj Tunich, Takalik Abaj, Kaminaljuyú, Uaxactun; Valley of Oaxaca: Monte Albán, Dainzú

Late Preclassic    BCE 400–200 CE    Maya area: Uaxactun, Tikal, Edzná, Cival, San Bartolo, Altar de Sacrificios, Piedras Negras, Ceibal, Rio Azul; Central Mexico: Teotihuacan; Gulf Coast: Epi-Olmec culture

Classic
200–900 CE    Classic Maya Centers, Teotihuacan, Zapotec
Early Classic    200–600 CE    Maya area: Calakmul, Caracol, Chunchucmil, Copán, Naranjo, Palenque, Quiriguá, Tikal, Uaxactun, Yaxha; Teotihuacan apogee; Zapotec apogee; Bajío apogee.

Late Classic    600–900 CE    Maya area: Uxmal, Toniná, Cobá, Waka', Pusilhá, Xultún, Dos Pilas, Cancuen, Aguateca; Central Mexico: Xochicalco, Cacaxtla; Gulf Coast: El Tajín and Classic Veracruz culture

Terminal Classic    800–900/1000 CE    Maya area: Puuc sites – Uxmal, Labna, Sayil, Kabah

Postclassic
900–1519 CE    Aztec, Tarascans, Mixtec, Totonac, Pipil, Itzá, Ko'woj, K'iche', Kaqchikel, Poqomam, Mam

Early Postclassic    900–1200 CE    Cholula, Tula, Mitla, El Tajín, Tulum, Topoxte, Kaminaljuyú, Joya de Cerén

Late Postclassic    1200–1519 CE    Tenochtitlan, Cempoala, Tzintzuntzan, Mayapán, Ti'ho, Gumarcaj, Iximche, Mixco Viejo, Zaculeu


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